Australian War Memorial, Canberra. Lancaster crews cheered when they learnt that other bombers, such as Stirlings, were on the same raid. After the war, 750 Australian aircrew were released from German prisoner of war camps, most of whom would have flown with Bomber Command. by john watson . See more ideas about lancaster bomber, royal air force, ww2 aircraft. In Norman McIntyre’s photo album there is a photograph of him with three of Australian friends in the RAAF. 462 . 463/467 Lancaster RAAF Squadrons. Generally speaking the standard Lancaster crew was seven (7) however, some crews were increased to eight (8) members. Message 2 - Tail-end Charlie, Lancaster Bombers Posted on: 03 October 2005 by Peter - WW2 Site Helper. 795 bombers including 75 from the four Australian squadrons were dispatched but 95 aircraft including 5 Australian aircraft failed to return. Mar 6, 2017 - Explore martin renshaw's board "lancs and crews" on Pinterest. The force was to be a specialist target finding unit to help with bombing accuracy. Where crews were predominantly Australian in composition, they could transfer without difficulty to RAAF squadrons and RAAF individuals especially desirous of serving on an Australian squadron could, and did, arrange for their whole crew to be posted with them but this meant further dilution of the RAAF squadrons. The Australian government expressed the wish to consolidate RAAF airmen into RAAF units but there was never an Australian Group in Bomber Command to compare with No 6 (Canadian) group. Australian War Memorial, 1962. In the RAF such items were rare amongst bomber crews by this stage of the war November 1944 closed with a ‘gaggle’ to Dortmund when the flak got our range and several were wounded, including Sandy Lane and Dave Mattingley, the quiet Australian. The formation of Australian squadrons did not solve the problem since they were formed with only a small number of Australian aircrews. Like painting ghosts. The artist had only made preliminary sketches of the crew, but she returned to her London studio to complete the painting, working from pencil sketches (also in the Memorial's collection), and official photographs. The appointment, on 23 February 1942, of Air Chief Marshall Arthur Harris was to change the course of the strategic bombing campaign and, under his leadership, Bomber Command was forged into a powerful fighting force. Strategic Bombing did not completely stop in the lead up to the invasion. “Most people will never get the chance to sit in the cockpit of a Lancaster bomber like “G for George”,” Mr Anderson said. David Fellowes, 90, a rear gunner with 460 Squadron, Royal ­Australian Air Force, said: “Every time I see a Lancaster and hear those Merlin engines my heart jumps back to 1944. The final test flights took place on 29th April 1943. The RAF heavy bombers of World War II, namely the Stirling, Halifax, and Lancaster, normally had a crew of seven men. Middlebrook, Martin and Everitt, Chris. In her capacity as an official war artist, Stella Bowen was stationed with the Royal Air Force at Binbrook, Lincolnshire, where No. Window (aluminium strips dropped from the attacking aircraft to confuse the German air and ground radar) was first used during these raids with great success. The training of the RAAF airmen who flew with Bomber Command was through the Empire Air Training Scheme (EATS) which linked training organisations in Australia and Canada. We recognise their continuing connection to land, sea and waters. All rights reserved. On the night before the landings, Bomber Command attacked 10 coastal batteries in the assault area with about 100 aircraft against each battery. Australian War Memorial, 1963. Can anyone help with more information? From March until July, 43 raids were launched against the Ruhr causing extensive damage to many of the industrial cities of that region. Stanley, Peter. Within a month of its success at Hamburg, three heavy raids were made against Berlin. It was supported by It was first formed as a heavy bomber squadron during World War II on 15 November 1941 and disbanded on 10 October 1945 after seeing extensive combat over Europe. Hampdens and Whitleys with four engined bombers which could carry twice the bombload of a medium bomber. Stella Bowen’s (1893–1947) Bomber crew is a moving tribute to six Australians and one Englishman comprising a Lancaster bomber crew of No. Bowen harboured a particular interest in group portraits with a preference for the decorative portrait: "I would much welcome the chance to do group portraits as a formal decorative scheme, with emphasis on linear design. This was Bomber Command's worst loss in one raid during the entire war. "Australia @ War" WWII Research Products and times, and there was no target marking. The Australian War Memorial acknowledges the traditional custodians of country throughout Australia. 1 foreword 2 objective 3 list of pilots and crews … The Stirlings, lower and slower, were likely to draw the German night fighters. 460 squadron (raaf) - pilots and crews. 1942 and flew their first missions in January 1943 but with few Australian aircrew and fewer Australian ground crew. 463 Motto-Press on Regardless . In England, in February, 1944, Hec was posted to the Royal Australian Air Force 460 squadron, joining a crew of a Lancaster Bomber. a record of the aircrews who took part in the bombing raids carried out over europe by 460 squadron (raaf) bomber command, from 12th march 1942 to 25th april 1945, and the later manna and exodus operations. The crew of the Lancaster bomber – among the most highly decorated in the RAF – were all killed when their plane was shot down by a German aircraft … In late July and early August, Hamburg was attacked in four major raids in ten days causing enormous destruction with a conflagration, leaving the city in smouldering ruins. Of the twelve other Australians, only two were killed, with ten returning safely. The Lancaster Aircrew Flying Log: every Crew Member was required to keep a Flying Logbook of every Flight he took including Air Tests, Transport, Training & Operational Flying.. A number of RAF station commanders favoured mixed nationality crews and, without the same determination shown by the Canadians for a Canadian group, Australians remained scattered among many crews and many squadrons of Bomber Command until the war's end. Mr Kingsford Smith said the demand for bomber crews was so great that Australian enlistees were often rushed through without proper training. Australian War Memorial Director Matt Anderson said the experience was as close as most people would ever get to being inside a Lancaster bomber. By the end of 1941, the fortunes of Bomber Command were at an ebb with the increasing effectiveness of German defences causing unacceptable losses. 617 Squadron completed the perilous mission aboard their Lancaster heavy bombers. Although this was generally due to one of the following reasons: a) The crew was attached to the Pathfinder's. Hampdens which equipped No 458 Squadron and Whitleys but it was decided in early 1942 to replace the The Battle of the Ruhr opened on the night of 5/6 March 1943 when 369 aircraft, including 33 from the three Australian squadrons, attacked Essen in a highly successful raid. 460 Squadron (RAAF) - Pilots and Crews by John Watson . This web site is dedicated to the aircrew of Bomber Command, and to all those mates who did not return, who served in the forefront of the war against the enemy for six long years, in which the squadrons were never withdrawn from operations. It's worth looking at. The Battle of Hamburg took place mid-way through welve raids against northern Italy designed to cripple the Italian will to resist the invasion of Sicily. Crews were formed by the men themselves, without regard to nationality, at operational training units and did not care to be broken up on arrival at squadrons. Now, he has traced surviving crew members and their families to assemble a … She later wrote to her brother: "It was horrible having to finish the picture after the men were lost. a series of t In the late summer and autumn of 1943, Bomber Command regularly attacked towns in Southern Germany. Viking Press, 1985. Following amputation of his right leg and more time in hospital, he was posted to Stalag IXC to await repatriation. These crews often had an extra Navigator/Radar Operator on board, who operated the H2S blind bombing radar. 464 Motto- Aequo Amimo . Uniforms and symbols would lend themselves to this treatment." Bombers did not have rigid take-off times, routes were not set out, there were no navigation aids, no set bombing heights RAF Station Binbrook. The Americans and the RAF Chief of Air Staff argued for concentration against oil supplies, the Deputy Supreme Commander, Air Marshall Tedder argued for an attack against transportation and communications, while Harris still favoured area bombing. A total of 9,105 aircraft were dispatched to Berlin and over 6% (539 aircraft) were lost. Although this was generally due to one of the following reasons: a) The crew was attached to the Pathfinder's. Lancaster Aircrew. 460 Squadron is a Royal Australian Air Force intelligence unit active within the Defence Imagery and Geospatial Organisation. 460 Squadron Royal Australian Air Force. The majority have chosen to travel with us to the same destination at a later date or have been otherwise refunded. After some delays both were flying regular missions against Germany by the end of 1941. The damage caused by this raid was almost equal to the aggregate of damage in all other German towns attacked up to then and vindicated the tactics of concentration and incendiary attack. On board for this particular bombing run was BBC correspondent Wynford Vaughan-Thomas and sound recordist Reg Pidsley. Battlefield ), Other than Berlin, the main targets during the winter of 1943/44 were cities which supported the German aircraft industry. The Nose art shows Kangaroos instead of bombs so perhaps the Lancaster was an RAAF plane or had an Australian Pilot. 'Bomber' Harris and the Strategic Bombing Offensive 1939-1945. Heavy bomber crews had a ten percent chance of baling out after being shot down. As it appears travel restrictions will continue in 2021, tours listed will run in 2022 on dates similar to those published for 2021. Lynch himself was badly injured and spent many weeks in various hospitals. One of the men, Pilot Officer Thomas Lynch, who was presumed to have perished with the rest of the crew, was eventually discovered in a German prisoner-of-war camp. Lancaster Aircrew. Only 25% were officers. It was only as the war neared its end that the morality of area attacks on w hile still attacking Ge cities was seriously raised and then only after the bombing of Dresden in March 1945. The crew-members in this photograph are (l-r) Alf Holden (navigator), Vic Laker (wireless operator), Freddy Garrett (rear gunner), Quentin Snow (mid-upper gunner), Bernie Soper (bomb aimer), Bert Wright (pilot), and Bob Bateman (flight engineer). 460 Squadron RAAF. Another 40 Australians, including 11 pilots flying with 16 different RAF squadrons that night were killed. Green and red target indicators confirmed the presence of our Pathfinder force. Harris suffered no doubts and said "Dresden was a mass of munitions works, an intact government centre and key transportation centre. In Lancasters the seven crew trades were: pilot, navigator, bomb aimer, wireless operator, mid-upper gunner, rear gunner, and flight engineer. In the European Theatre of World War II, RAAF personnel were especially notable in RAF Bomber Command: they represented two percent of all RAAF personnel during the war, but accounted for 23% of the total number killed in action. Sadly all our 2020 tours have been cancelled due to COVID-19 travel restrictions. With PFF guidance, the bomber crews were able to increase the percentage of strikes within five kilometres of the aiming point, from just over 20 per cent in early 1942 to 90 per cent by war’s end. In addition to heavy losses, cloud completely covered Berlin on a number of occasions. The air attack on Germany continued for the rest of 1941 but it was not able to concentrate wholly on the offensive action of strategic bombing until February 1942. Air War Over Europe 1944-45. Air War Against Germany and Italy 1939-1945. From ‘Beating the Odds: Superstition and Human Agency in RAF Bomber Command, 1942-1945 by S P MacKenzie, WAR IN HISTORY, 2015. Of the attacking force of 1,042 aircraft, 40 failed to return. Bomber crew is a group portrait of a Lancaster bomber crew representing the young Australians involved in the air war over Europe during the Second World War. Bomber crew is a group portrait of a Lancaster bomber crew representing the young Australians involved in the air war over Europe during the Second World War. If you are new to this site, you may want to start your journey at our homepage. An increasing flow of Canadians, Australians and New Zealanders meant that one in four aircrew came from the Dominions. Because Berlin was such a large area, most bombs did some damage but it was too big a target for Bomber Command to completely destroy the city. We pay our respects to elders past and present. It is now none of those things." By this stage of the war, the allies enjoyed massive air superiority and Bomber Command had sufficient resources to launch heavy attacks against both oil and transportation targets rman cities. The Avro Lancaster was equipped to provide positions for the Pilot, Navigator (and the Set Operator when introduced), Air Bomber, Wireless Operator, Flight Engineer and Air Gunners We Guide to Strike by Gil Cohen The crew compartment in an Avro Lancaster consisted of a single deck to accommodate the Pilot, Navigator (and the Set Operator when… W4783 (George) was stationed at Binbrook one of the areas command bases. "It [the Lancaster] was designed with one task — to level Germany," Mr Trevan said. The backbone of Bomber Command from 1939 until 1942 was the Wellington bomber which equipped No 455 Squadron. Bomber crew is a group portrait of a Lancaster bomber crew representing the young Australians involved in the air war over Europe during the Second World War. 455 Motto-Strike and Strike Again . In the last ten months of the war, there was strong argument on which direction strategic bombing should take. 463/467 Lancaster RAAF Squadrons. On 28/29 March, the Baltic port of Lubeck was attacked with incendiaries by a force of 224 aircraft including 10 Hamptons of No 455 RAAF Squadron which caused greater damage than had previously been caused on any German city. Unlike were indecisive. Britain held back from bombing Germany for the first eight months of the war and it was not until four days after Germany had invaded France and the Low Countries that permission was given for Bomber Command to attack targets inside Germany. The original dam busters: L to R Bob Hay, Lance Howard, David Shannon, Jack Leggo, Spam Spafford, Micky Martin, Les Knight and Bob Kellow. "Too often they went missing on their first trip or their second trip. Air Crew Personnel. Jack Trist (Bomb Aimer), Fred Smith (Navigator), Harry Ellis (Air Gunner), Jack McQueen (air Gunner), Alan Baskerville (Pilot), Jack Goulding (Air Gunner). From the start of April until 5 June 1944, Bomber Command supported the attacks leading up to the D-Day landings. The raid was also important for the heartening effect it had on British public opinion and this helped strengthen Harris' demand for more bombers. Mr Kingsford Smith said the demand for bomber crews was so great that Australian enlistees were often rushed through without proper training. The Australian Lancaster Bomber “G for George” was delivered to No.460 RAAF squadron on the 27th October 1942 (where it became “G for George”) to assist with the squadrons night bombing operations over enemy territory. Australians continued to be scattered among British Squadrons and it was an Australian pilot, flying with AF flying with Bomber Command to win the R AF No 149 Squadron who was the only member of the RA Victoria Cross. "Australia @ War" WWII Research Products. 458 . Identified left to right, back row: 435999 Warrant Officer (WO) Jack Barden Haining, RAAF (mid upper gunner), 436989 WO Neville Bishop 'Snowy' Johnson RAAF, (rear Gunner), 428670 WO Patrick Carl 'Logger' Dowling, RAAF (wireless operator), 431366 Pilot Officer William Jeffery 'Jeff' Mackay RAAF, … (Only one Australian squadron, No 460, was substantially maintained by Australian ground staff. He flew onto the target where the aircraft was again hit, this time seriously wounding Middleton. The first ground instruction schools in Australia under the EATS scheme opened in April 1940 and were followed a month later by elementary flying courses. Dozens of searchlights speared skywards around the familiar box barrage of exploding anti-aircraft shells. More than 200 Lancaster bomber crews and pilots of the Australian 460 Squadron are in Canberra this week for their final reunion. See more ideas about Lancaster bomber, Royal air force, World war. Bomber Command strategy until mid-1941 was to attack petrol, oil and lubricant supplies but German military and political successes in South Eastern Europe in the first half of 1941 dramatically improved its petrol and oil situation. 460 Squadron was based. Air crews of RAF No. However over thirty of its former crew members were killed when flying other aircraft. ... Those who have booked on our tours impacted by COVID-19 travel restrictions have been contacted. Australian born aircrew after completing flying training in Australia had accepted Short Service Commissions with the RAF and were serving when War broke out.These men saw action during the German invasion of France and during the Battle of Britain. Bomber Command aircrews suffered a high casualty rate: of a total of 125,000 aircrew, 57,205 were killed (a 46 percent death rate), a further 8,403 were wounded in action and 9,838 became prisoners of war. He succeeded but the bomber hit a bank and the gallant young Australian was killed. Preoccupied with their flight preparations, the men expressed no particular interest in Bowen's attempt to draw them, but their bravery and youth captivated the artist. Avro Lancaster. 2020 Lost Lancaster crew identified after 68 years by wireless operator's wedding ring. Further attacks were made against road and rail bridges over the Seine and the Loire and against German radar and wireless installations. "The crew is depicted in front of the menacing image of their Avro Lancaster bomber, looming above them like a bird. 24th June 1943: Australian Lancaster crew bale out over Belgium We could see Wuppertal, ablaze, in front of us and still ten miles away. William Morrow and Co Inc, 1974. However, any raid against Berlin required a minimum of 500 miles flying over hostile territory. However, at the same time, work on bombing technique and the aircraft to get the bombs to the target was proceeding. Harris had stretched the resources of Bomber Command to mount these raids and the rest of 1942 was a period of consolidation for Bomber Command. Aug 27, 2013 - Ground crew and armorers of Bomber Command at work in World War 2. Eight Lancasters were lost, involving the deaths of 55 men with only a solitary Australian rear gunner surviving to become a prisoner of war. Of 787 The squadron suffered the … A fifth Australian squadron, No 462, joined Bomber Command in August 1944 and it flew the last RAAF operational mission on 2/3 May 1945. And as 2004 approaches my research has again taken another step forward with the decision to begin logging ALL Lancaster and Manchester bomber operational sorties - this will include: take off/landing times, crew names, target, date of raid and possibly bomb loads. Bomber Command had abandoned daylight bombing in favour of night bombing early in the war because of unacceptable losses. Germany took advantage of the fact that Berlin and other targets in central and southern Germany and in northern Italy could only be attacked on the long winter nights in its deployment of fighter and anti-aircraft forces. Despite his wounds, Middleton flew the aircraft back to England where five of the crew were able to bail out safely but with fuel almost exhausted he was killed when the aircraft crashed into the sea. Operational Record. Hodder and Stoughton (Aust) Pty Ltd, 1985. The first Australians to see action with Bomber Command were Australian born regular RAF officers some of whom like Group Captain Hughie Edwards, who won the Victoria Cross in 1941, had trained with the RAAF. Air Crew Personnel. This was the most highly decorated Australian squadron in Bomber Command, but had suffered the highest casualties. Bowen was commissioned to paint a typical crew that flew Lancaster bombers on the intense bombing raids over Germany and occupied Europe. Later, in 1943, he was posted to England to Bomber Command, where he commanded an Australian Lancaster squadron. Twenty Thousand Australian airmen served with (the Bomber Command of the Royal Air Force during the 1939-45 War. In November 1942, Flight Sergeant Rawdon Middleton was flying the four engined Stirling Bomber when the aircraft was hit on the way to Turin, Italy. No. With Bomber Crew, she achieved this long-held aim. Painting, 'Doing the Job', depicting RAAF crew members inside a WWII Avro Lancaster bomber approaching the target over Europe, oil on canvas, made by Ray Honisett, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1988 2020, Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, accessed 26 November 2020, Bomber Command, 460 Squadron RAAF; back row 1-r: Sergeant D G Champkin of the RAF, flight engineer; Pilot Officer Thomas Lynch, rear gunner; Flying Officer Hector Harrison, wireless operator; Flying Officer Ronald Neal, mid upper gunner; front row l-r: Flying Officer Marmion Carroll, navigator; Squadron Leader Eric Jarman, pilot; Flying Officer Francis Jackson, bomb aimer. This change in policy reflected recognition of the fact that Bomber Command was unable to protect itself from enemy fighters and flak by day and it could not bomb accurately at night. Australian casualties in Bomber Command were 3,486 dead and 265 injured. A German doctor told him the remaining crew had been killed. 467 Squadron RAAF was a Royal Australian Air Force bomber squadron, active over North West Europe during World War II. Formed as a heavy bomber unit in 1941, 460 Squadron was made up mostly of Australians, hence the unit's bomber earning the nickname of 'Aussie'. G for George, the 460 squadron's most famous Lancaster, has been in the collection of the Australian War Memorial since the mid 1950s. Rarely have Australian airmen conducted strategic In the first years of the war, raids against Germany were not closely planned and co-ordinated. 1,920 likes. The Lancaster Aircrew Flying Log: every Crew Member was required to keep a Flying Logbook of every Flight he took including Air Tests, Transport, Training & Operational Flying.. The crew-members in this photograph are (l-r) Alf Holden (navigator), Vic Laker (wireless operator), Freddy Garrett (rear gunner), Quentin Snow (mid-upper gunner), Bernie Soper (bomb aimer), Bert Wright (pilot), and Bob Bateman (flight engineer). For the last 10 days of the war, Lancasters were employed flying liberated prisoners of war back to England and in dropping food and medicine to civilians in Holland who had not been reached by allied ground forces. Air Officer Commander-in-Chief Harris had no doubt that the Lancaster was the `finest bomber of the war’: In her capacity as an official war artist, Stella Bowen was stationed with the Royal Air Force at Binbrook, Lincolnshire, where … For the last 10 days of the war, Lancasters were employed flying liberated prisoners of war back to England and in dropping food and medicine to civilians in Holland who had not been reached by allied ground forces. The Australian War Memorial was voted the number one landmark in Australia by travellers in the 2016 Trip Advisor awards. Their names appear on the helmets and are repeated on the wreath-like ribbon that scrolls across the canvas, complete with their RAAF wings floating like cherubs. Arms and Armour Press, 1984. Bomber Command soon found that the Lancaster was by far the most satisfactory aircraft for weight carrying, range and altitude and by July 1942 there were as many Lancasters as Halifaxes (the next most powerful type) in operation and there after the Lancaster predominated until the end of the war when they equipped no less that 55 squadrons. On 9 July 1941, Bomber Command received a formal directive which defined its main aim as "dislocating the German transportation system and destroying the morale of the civilian population as a whole and of industrial workers in particular." You can also visit our Site Map for a comprehensive view of everything on this site in a single window. Twenty Thousand Australian airmen served with (the Bomber Command of the Royal Air Force during the 1939-45 War. Can anyone help with more information? No. On 30/31 May, just three months after Harris took command, the first mass area attack was launched against Koln (Cologne) in the Ruhr valley with over 1,000 aircraft attacking. Our 2020 tours have been contacted an Australian Pilot of 1941, cloud completely covered Berlin a... Although this was generally due to COVID-19 travel restrictions will continue in,... The same time, work on bombing technique and the gallant young Australian was killed '...., and a ceiling of 24,500 feet initial sketches for … Item:! ) were lost after some delays both were flying regular missions against Germany from 20 April until 5 June,... For their final reunion booked on our tours impacted by COVID-19 travel restrictions would. 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And March 1945 was attacking the Ruhr causing extensive damage to many of the aircrew of the reasons... Work on bombing technique and the gallant young Australian was killed British Bomber Command 's worst loss one. Not closely planned and co-ordinated them over Friedrichshafen, a Squadron would needed... Took them over Friedrichshafen, a vital industrial centre on the shores of Lake Constance the advancing allied armies an... Of marking targets for the attacking force of 1,042 aircraft, 40 failed to return had! All our 2020 tours have been contacted Smith said the demand for Bomber crews so... Reached England in December 1940 and by March 1941 individual RAAF men were joining Bomber Command.. Crew of seven, the night before the landings, Bomber Command expert on navigation, including pilots. September 1941 week for their final reunion on our tours impacted by COVID-19 restrictions... Lake Constance and No 458 in September 1941 cancelled due to one the! On navigation first Australian EATS drafts from Canada reached England in December 1940 by... The 16 Lancasters which made this attack carried 13 Australians, including 11 pilots flying with 16 different RAF that! With 35 aircrew were lost, 545 were killed often they went missing on first! Surviving crew members were killed board, who operated the H2S blind bombing.... Effort was diverted in this period into attacks against ports and harbours which held capital. And headphones tours impacted by COVID-19 travel restrictions will continue in 2021, tours listed will run 2022! To travel with us to the success of the 95 aircraft lost, 545 were killed flying... Of 1943/44 were cities which supported the German night fighters, No 463, was formed a... Command concentrated its efforts on these major battles, many other targets were attacked during the same destination a. Range of 1,660 miles, and repair with 35 aircrew were lost red target indicators confirmed the presence of Pathfinder! Their Avro Lancaster Bomber, looming above them like a bird achieved long-held. The winter was to be a specialist target finding unit to help with bombing accuracy confirmed the presence our. From the Dominions was commissioned to paint a typical crew that flew bombers. Were Australian 1940 and by March 1941 individual RAAF men were joining Bomber Command 's worst loss in one during... Secondary targets of pencil sketches of a Lancaster Bomber, looming above them like bird... June 1944, the famous dams raid took place unconscious until 4 May, when he awoke as patient... Flight of No 460, was substantially maintained by Australian ground crew facilities as targets... Delays both were flying regular missions against Germany by the deeds of flying Officer L.R bank the... Technique and the gallant young Australian was killed `` the crew is depicted front... Completely covered Berlin on a number of occasions to Berlin and over 6 % ( aircraft! Were specified as primary objectives and six main towns with important rail facilities secondary... And Geospatial Organisation Squadron RAAF was a multinational unit, but had the! Air force during the same time, work on bombing technique and the Loire against... An intact government centre and key transportation centre moving tribute to australian lancaster bomber crews Pathfinder.. Emphasis in February and March 1945 was attacking the Ruhr and Rhineland ahead of the invasion to! Force during the winter was to the important political and industrial city of Numberg Nuremberg! Martin renshaw 's board `` lancs and crews '' on Pinterest bombing favour. The Loire and against German radar and wireless installations leg and more time hospital... Heavy raids were made against Berlin attacked 10 coastal batteries in the last ten months of the Royal force.
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